A mobile application (or mobile app) is a software application designed to run on smartphones, tablet computers and other mobile devices. They are available through application distribution platforms, which are typically operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the Apple App Store, Google Play, Windows Phone Store and BlackBerry App World. Some apps are free, while others have a price. Usually, they are downloaded from the platform to a target device, such as an iPhone, BlackBerry, Android phone or Windows Phone, but sometimes they can be downloaded to less mobile computers, such as laptops or desktops. For apps with a price, generally a percentage, 20-30%, goes to the distribution provider (such as iTunes), and the rest goes to the producer of the app

The term "app" has become popular, and in 2010 was listed as "Word of the Year" by the American Dialect Society.[2] Technologist Michael Saylor has referred to the newer mobile app enabled smartphones as "app-phones" for their distinction from the earlier smartphone models. He states that these app-phones can support many applications and programming languages and should be considered computers first and phones second. Mobile apps were originally offered for general productivity and information retrieval, including email, calendar, contacts, and stock market and weather information. However, public demand and the availability of developer tools drove rapid expansion into other categories, such as mobile games, factory automation, GPS and location-based services, banking,order-tracking, and ticket purchases. The explosion in number and variety of apps made discovery a challenge, which in turn led to the creation of a wide range of review, recommendation, and curation sources, including blogs, magazines, and dedicated online app-discovery services.

The popularity of mobile applications has continued to rise, as their usage has become increasingly prevalent across mobile phone users. A May 2012 comScore study reported that during the previous quarter, more mobile subscribers used apps than browsed the web on their devices: 51.1% vs. 49.8% respectively.

Application software, also known as an application or an app, is computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players. Many application programs deal principally with documents. Apps may be bundled with the computer and its system software, or may be published separately. In recent years, the abbreviation "app" has specifically come to mean application software written for mobile devices, with the abbreviation in particular representing both the smaller size and smaller scope of the software.

Application software is contrasted with system software and middleware, which manage and integrate a computer's capabilities, but typically do not directly apply in the performance of tasks that benefit the user. The system software serves the application, which in turn serves the user.

Similar relationships apply in other fields. For example, a shopping mall does not provide the merchandise a shopper is seeking, but provides space and services for retailers that serve the shopper. A bridge may similarly support rail tracks which support trains, allowing the trains to transport passengers.

Application software applies the power of a particular computing platform or system software to a particular purpose. Some applications are available in versions for several different platforms; others have narrower requirements and are thus called, for example, a Geography application for Windows or an Android application for education or Linux gaming. Sometimes a new and popular application arises which only runs on one platform, increasing the desirability of that platform.

Android is a Linux-based operating system designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers, developed by Google in conjunction with the Open Handset Alliance. Initially developed by Android Inc, whom Google financially backed and later purchased in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 86 hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.

Google releases the Android code as open source, under the Apache License. The Android Open Source Project (AOSP), led by Google, is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Android. Additionally, Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of devices, written primarily in a customized version of Java. They are available for download through Google Play or third-party sites. In September 2012, there were more than 675,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play was 25 billion.

The first Android-powered phone was sold in October 2008,[15] and by the end of 2010 Android had become the world's leading smartphone platform, overtaking Symbian which held its record for years.It had a worldwide smartphone market share of 68% at the second quarter of 2012,and as of Q3 2012, there were 500 million devices activated and 1.3 million activations per day

Symbian is a mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones and currently maintained by Accenture. Symbian was originally developed by Symbian Ltd., as a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors, although an unreleased x86 port existed. The current form of Symbian is a open-source platform developed by Symbian Foundation in 2009, as the successor of the original Symbian OS. Symbian was the most popular smartphone OS until the end of 2010, when it was overtaken by Android.

The latest version, Symbian^3, was officially released in Q4 2010, first used in the Nokia N8. In May 2011 an update, Symbian Anna, was officially announced, followed by Nokia Belle (previously Symbian Belle) in August 2011. The latest phone with Symbian is the Nokia 808 PureView, released in June 2012.

On 11 February 2011, Nokia announced that it would migrate from Symbian to Microsoft's Windows Phone OS, after Symbian lost popularity. Nokia CEO Stephen Elop announced Nokia's first Windows phones at Nokia World 2011: the Lumia 800 and Lumia 710. These phones were launched on 14 November 2011.[9] On 22 June 2011 Nokia made an agreement with Accenture for an outsourcing program. Accenture will provide Symbian-based software development and support services to Nokia through 2016; about 2,800 Nokia employees became Accenture employees as of October 2011. The transfer was completed on 30 September 2011

The iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone runs Apple's iOS mobile operating system, originally named "iPhone OS". The first iPhone was released on June 29, 2007; the most recent iPhone, the 6th-generation iPhone 5, was released on September 21, 2012. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard rather than a physical one. The iPhone has Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity.

An iPhone can shoot video (though this was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS), take photos, play music, send and receive email, browse the web, send texts, and receive visual voicemail. Other functions—games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking, etc.—can be enabled by downloading apps; as of 2012, the App Store offered more than 700,000 apps by Apple and third parties

There are six generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the six major releases of iOS (formerly iPhone OS). The original iPhone was a GSM phone, and established design precedents, such as screen size and button placement, that have persisted through all models. The iPhone 3G added 3G cellular network capabilities and A-GPS location. The iPhone 3GS added a faster processor and a higher-resolution camera that could record video at 480p. The iPhone 4 featured a higher-resolution 960 × 640 "retina display", a higher-resolution rear-facing camera and a lower-resolution front-facing camera for video calling and other apps. The iPhone 4S added an 8-megapixel camera with 1080p video recording, a dual-core processor, and a natural language voice control system called Siri. iPhone 5 features the new A6 processor, holds a 4-inch Retina display that is larger than its predecessor's 3.5-inch display, and replaces the 30-pin connector with an all-digital Lightning connector.

HP webOS, formerly Palm webOS or simply webOS, is a mobile operating system based on a Linux kernel, initially developed by Palm, which was later acquired by Hewlett-Packard. The official name is webOS, uncapitalised, but WebOS is also used

Palm launched webOS in January 2009. Various versions of webOS have been featured on several devices, including Pre, Pixi, and Veer phones and the HP TouchPad tablet.

After the failure of the HP TouchPad and the proposed sale of the HP Personal Systems Group, HP announced plans to release an open source version of the WebOS platform, named Open webOS. Code specific to the existing devices was released as webOS Community Edition (CE), with support for the existing HP hardware. Open webOS includes open source libraries designed to target a wider range of hardware.

iOS (previously iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple Inc. Originally released in 2007 for the iPhone and iPod Touch, it has been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPad and Apple TV. Unlike Microsoft's Windows Phone (Windows CE) and Google's Android, Apple does not license iOS for installation on non-Apple hardware. As of September 12, 2012, Apple's App Store contained more than 700,000 iOS applications, which have collectively been downloaded more than 30 billion times. It had a 23% share of the smartphone operating system units sold in the first quarter of 2012, behind only Google's Android. In June 2012, it accounted for 65% of mobile web data consumption (including use on both the iPod Touch and the iPad). At the half of 2012, there were 410 million devices activated. According to the special media event held by Apple on September 12, 2012, 400 million devices have been sold through June 2012

The user interface of iOS is based on the concept of direct manipulation, using multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap, pinch, and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface. Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device

iOS is derived from OS X, with which it shares the Darwin foundation, and is therefore a Unix operating system. iOS is Apple's mobile version of the OS X operating system used on Apple computers.

A smartphone is a mobile phone built on a mobile operating system, with more advanced computing capability and connectivity than a feature phone. The first smartphones combined the functions of a personal digital assistant (PDA) with a mobile phone. Later models added the functionality of portable media players, low-end compact digital cameras, pocket video cameras, and GPS navigation units to form one multi-use device. Modern smartphones also include high-resolution touchscreens and web browsers that display standard web pages as well as mobile-optimized sites. High-speed data access is provided by Wi-Fi and Mobile Broadband.

The most common mobile operating systems (OS) used by modern smartphones include Google's Android, Apple's iOS, Nokia's Symbian, RIM's BlackBerry OS, Samsung's Bada, Microsoft's Windows Phone, Hewlett-Packard's webOS, and embedded Linux distributions such as Maemo and MeeGo. Such operating systems can be installed on many different phone models, and typically each device can receive multiple OS software updates over its lifetime.

A tablet pc, or a tablet, is a mobile computer, larger than a mobile phone or personal digital assistant, integrated into a flat touch screen and primarily operated by touching the screen rather than using a physical keyboard. It often uses an onscreen virtual keyboard, a passive stylus pen, or a digital pen. The term may also apply to a variety of form factors that differ in position of the screen with respect to a keyboard. The standard form of tablet does not have an integrated keyboard but may be connected to one with a wireless link or a USB port. Convertible notebook computers have an integrated keyboard that can be hidden by a swivel joint or slide joint, exposing only the screen for touch operation. Hybrids have a detachable keyboard so that the touch screen can be used as a stand-alone tablet. Booklets include dual-touchscreens, and can be used as a notebook by displaying a virtual keyboard in one of them.

Early examples of the information tablet concept originated in the 20th century mainly as prototypes and concept ideas; prominently, Alan Kay's Dynabook of 1968. The first commercial portable electronic devices based on the concept appeared at the end of the 20th century. During the 2000s Microsoft attempted a relatively unsuccessful product line with Microsoft Tablet PC, which carved a niche market at hospitals and outdoor businesses.

In 2010, Apple released the iPad, which used the operating system and touch screen technology similar to that used in their iPhone and became the first mobile computer tablet to achieve worldwide commercial success. This has sparked a new market for tablet computers and a variety of other manufacturers have produced versions of their own including Samsung, HTC, Motorola, RIM, Sony, Amazon, HP, Microsoft, Archos and many others. Competing tablets use a variety of operating systems, although the main contenders are iOS (Apple), Android (Google), Windows (Microsoft) and QNX (RIM).

HTML5 is a markup language for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web, and is a core technology of the Internet originally proposed by Opera Software. It is the fifth revision of the HTML standard (created in 1990 and standardized as HTML4 as of 1997) and, as of October 2012, is still under development. Its core aims have been to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia while keeping it easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices (web browsers, parsers, etc.). HTML5 is intended to subsume not only HTML 4, but XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML as well.

HTML5 is not software that has to be installed but rather a new version of the language HTML. Web browsers must support this new version of HTML in order to correctly display web pages using HTML5 functions. It is upon the developers of browsers to update their software to use HTML5; users simply must allow these updates to be done on their computers, but do not have to install additional software.

Following its immediate predecessors HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.1, HTML5 is a response to the observation that the HTML and XHTML in common use on the World Wide Web are a mixture of features introduced by various specifications, along with those introduced by software products such as web browsers, those established by common practice, and the many syntax errors in existing web documents. It is also an attempt to define a single markup language that can be written in either HTML or XHTML syntax. It includes detailed processing models to encourage more interoperable implementations; it extends, improves and rationalises the markup available for documents, and introduces markup and application programming interfaces (APIs) for complex web applications. For the same reasons, HTML5 is also a potential candidate for cross-platform mobile applications. Many features of HTML5 have been built with the consideration of being able to run on low-powered devices such as smartphones and tablets. In December 2011 research firm Strategy Analytics forecast sales of HTML5 compatible phones will top 1 billion in 2013

Java is a set of several computer software products and specifications from Sun Microsystems (which has since merged with Oracle Corporation), that together provide a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment. Java is used in a wide variety of computing platforms from embedded devices and mobile phones on the low end, to enterprise servers and supercomputers on the high end. While less common on desktop computers, Java applets are sometimes used to provide improved and secure functions while browsing the World Wide Web.

Writing in the Java programming language is the primary way to produce code that will be deployed as Java bytecode. There are, however, bytecode compilers available for other languages such as Ada, JavaScript, Python, and Ruby. Several new languages have been designed to run natively on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), such as Scala, Clojure and Groovy. Java syntax borrows heavily from C and C++, but object-oriented features are modeled after Smalltalk and Objective-C. Java eliminates certain low-level constructs such as pointers and has a very simple memory model where every object is allocated on the heap and all variables of object types are references. Memory management is handled through integrated automatic garbage collection performed by the JVM.

Microsoft's Windows Desktop Update was an optional feature included with Internet Explorer 4 (IE, released in September 1997), which introduced several updated shell features to the Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0 operating systems. These features became part of the standard installation in Windows 98 and later versions.

The Windows Desktop Update included features such as Active Desktop and tight IE4 integration with the Windows Explorer. It was downloadable as part of IE4 for all versions of Windows 95 except Windows 95 OEM Service Release 2.5 (4.00.950C) which included a standalone version of IE 4.0 plus the Windows Desktop Update (but not slipstreamed) where it was automatically installed after the standard Windows 95 set-up. Similarly, the shell update was also made available as part of IE 4.0 for Windows NT 4.0

While the Windows Desktop Update was officially only an optional user component under Internet Explorer 4.0 releases, and was not formally included in any later version of Internet Explorer (IE5 onwards), users can extract the Windows Desktop Update installer from the IE4 setup files using standard .CAB extraction tools or use IEAK to generate a version of the IE 5.0x, 5.5 or 6.0 setup which included the update. Also command line parameters can be used to instruct installer of those versions of IE to install Desktop Update.

Lua a lightweight multi-paradigm programming language designed as a scripting language with "extensible semantics" as a primary goal. Lua is cross-platform since it is written in ISO C. Lua has a relatively simple C API compared to other scripting languages.

Lua is commonly described as a “multi-paradigm” language, providing a small set of general features that can be extended to fit different problem types, rather than providing a more complex and rigid specification to match a single paradigm. Lua, for instance, does not contain explicit support for inheritance, but allows it to be implemented relatively easily with metatables. Similarly, Lua allows programmers to implement namespaces, classes, and other related features using its single table implementation; first-class functions allow the employment of many powerful techniques from functional programming; and full lexical scoping allows fine-grained information hiding to enforce the principle of least privilege.

Lua is a dynamically typed language intended for use as an extension or scripting language, and is compact enough to fit on a variety of host platforms. It supports only a small number of atomic data structures such as boolean values, numbers (double-precision floating point by default), and strings. Typical data structures such as arrays, sets, lists, and records can be represented using Lua’s single native data structure, the table, which is essentially a heterogeneous associative array.

Java Platform, Micro Edition, or Java ME, is a Java platform designed for embedded systems (mobile devices are one kind of such systems). Target devices range from industrial controls to mobile phones (especially feature phones) and set-top boxes. Java ME was formerly known as Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME).

Java ME was designed by Sun Microsystems, acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2010; the platform replaced a similar technology, PersonalJava. Originally developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 68, the different flavors of Java ME have evolved in separate JSRs. Sun provides a reference implementation of the specification, but has tended not to provide free binary implementations of its Java ME runtime environment for mobile devices, rather relying on third parties to provide their own.

As of 22 December 2006, the Java ME source code is licensed under the GNU General Public License, and is released under the project name phoneME. As of 2008, all Java ME platforms are currently restricted to JRE 1.3 features and use that version of the class file format (internally known as version 47.0). Should Oracle ever declare a new round of Java ME configuration versions that support the later class file formats and language features, such as those corresponding JRE 1.5 or 1.6 (notably, generics), it will entail extra work on the part of all platform vendors to update their JREs.

The iPod Touch (stylized, and marketed as iPod touch; also colloquially but incorrectly referred to as the iTouch, by analogy to the iPhone) is a portable media player, personal digital assistant, handheld game console, and Wi-Fi mobile device designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPod Touch adds the multi-touch graphical user interface to the iPod line. It is the first iPod with wireless access to the iTunes Store, and also has access to Apple's App Store, enabling content to be purchased and downloaded directly on the device. As of March 2011, Apple has sold over 60 million iPod Touch units.

The iPod Touch runs iOS. The first major update after the initial release was iPhone OS 2.0. This update introduced the App Store, which allowed third-party applications for the first time. iPhone OS 2.0 debuted July 11, 2008. iPhone users received the update for free, whilst iPod Touch users had to pay for the update. The second major update to the operating system, iPhone OS 3.0, was released June 17, 2009. iPhone OS 3.0 added features such as cut, copy, and paste, data tethering and push notification support. As with the prior major release, iPhone users received the update for free, whilst iPod Touch users had to pay for the update. iOS 4.0 was made available to the public on June 21, 2010. It was the first major iOS release to drop support for some devices; the first generation iPod Touch and original iPhone are not supported in iOS 4.0. The iPhone 3G and second generation iPod Touch had limited functionality under iOS 4.0, while the iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, third generation iPod Touch, and fourth generation iPod Touch had full functionality under iOS 4.0. The major features introduced in iOS 4.0 included iBooks, FaceTime, and multitasking. iOS 5.0 was previewed to the public on June 6, 2011, and was released on October 12, 2011.

Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software "cannot be touched".[1] Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records.

Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor. A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. Programs are an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer in a particular sequence. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code. Software may also be written in an assembly language, essentially, a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet. Assembly language must be assembled into object code via an assembler.

C# (pronounced see sharp) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed by Microsoft within its .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270:2006). C# is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure.

C# is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language. Its development team is led by Anders Hejlsberg. The most recent version is C# 5.0, which was released on August 15, 2012.

Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation that specializes in developing and marketing computer hardware systems and enterprise software products – particularly database management systems. Headquartered at 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, Redwood City, California, United States and employing approximately 113,644 people worldwide as of 30 June 2012, it has enlarged its share of the software market through organic growth and through a number of high-profile acquisitions. Oracle is the third-largest software maker by revenue, after Microsoft and IBM.

The Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) International, the worldwide association for enterprise content management, defined the term Enterprise Content Management in 2000. AIIM has refined the abbreviation ECM several times to reflect the expanding scope and importance of information management:

ECM is an umbrella term covering document management, web content management, search, collaboration, records management, digital asset management (DAM), work-flow management, capture and scanning. ECM is primarily aimed at managing the life-cycle of information from initial publication or creation all the way through archival and eventually disposal. ECM applications are delivered in three ways: on-premise software (installed on the organization’s own network), software as a service (SaaS) (web access to information that is stored on the software manufacturer’s system), or a hybrid solution composed of both on-premise and SaaS components.

ECM aims to make the management of corporate information easier through simplifying storage, security, version control, process routing, and retention. The benefits to an organization include improved efficiency, better control, and reduced costs. For example, many banks have converted to storing copies of old checks within ECM systems versus the older method of keeping physical checks in massive paper warehouses. Under the old system a customer request for a copy of a check might take weeks, as the bank employees had to contact the warehouse to have someone locate the right box, file and check, pull the check, make a copy and then mail it to the bank who would eventually mail it to the customer. With an ECM system in place, the bank employee simply searches the system for the customer’s account number and the number of the requested check. When the image of the check appears on screen, they are able to immediately mail it to the customer—usually while the customer is still on the phone.

Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington that develops, manufactures, licenses and supports a wide range of products and services related to computing. The company was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975. Microsoft is the world's largest software maker measured by revenues. It is also one of the world's most valuable companies

Microsoft was established to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800. It rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. The company's 1986 initial public offering, and subsequent rise in its share price, created an estimated three billionaires and 12,000 millionaires from Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions. In May 2011, Microsoft acquired Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in its largest acquisition to date

As of 2012, Microsoft is market dominant in both the PC operating system and office suite markets (the latter with Microsoft Office). The company also produces a wide range of other software for desktops and servers, and is active in areas including internet search (with Bing), the video game industry (with the Xbox and Xbox 360 consoles), the digital services market (through MSN), and mobile phones (via the Windows Phone OS). In June 2012, Microsoft announced that it would be entering the PC vendor market for the first time, with the launch of the Microsoft Surface tablet computer.

SAP AG (ISIN: DE0007164600, FWB: SAP, NYSE: SAP) is a German multinational software corporation that makes enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations. Headquartered in Walldorf, Baden-Württemberg, with regional offices around the world, SAP is the market leader in enterprise application software. The company's best-known software products are its enterprise resource planning application (SAP ERP), its enterprise data warehouse solution - SAP Business Warehouse (SAP BW), SAP BusinessObjects software, and most recently, Sybase mobile products and in-memory computing appliance SAP HANA. SAP is one of the largest software companies in the world.

SAP was founded in June 1972 as Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung ("System Analysis and Program Development") by five former IBM engineers in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg (Dietmar Hopp, Klaus Tschira, Hans-Werner Hector, Hasso Plattner, and Claus Wellenreuther).The acronym was later changed to stand for Systeme, Anwendungen und Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung ("Systems, Applications and Products in Data Processing").

As part of the Xerox exit strategy from the computer industry, Xerox retained IBM to migrate their business systems to IBM technology. As part of IBM's compensation for the migration, IBM acquired the SDS/SAPE software, reportedly for a contract credit of $80,000. The SAPE software was given by IBM to the founding ex-IBM employees in exchange for founding stock provided to IBM, reportedly 8%.[citation needed] Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was SAP's first ever customer in 1972

Customer relationship management (CRM) is a widely implemented model for managing a company’s interactions with customers, clients, and sales prospects. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize business processes—principally sales activities, but also those for marketing, customer service, and technical support. The overall goals are to find, attract, and win new clients, service and retain those the company already has, entice former clients to return, and reduce the costs of marketing and client service. Customer relationship management describes a company-wide business strategy including customer-interface departments as well as other departments. Measuring and valuing customer relationships is critical to implementing this strategy

One function of CRM is to collect information about clients. It is important to consider the customers' need for privacy and data security. Close attention should be paid to relevant laws and regulations. Vendors may need to reassure clients that their data not be shared with third parties without prior consent, and that illegal access can be prevented

A large challenge faced by developers and users is found in striking a balance between ease of use in the CRM interface and suitable and acceptable security measures and features. Corporations investing in CRM software do so expecting a relative ease of use while also requiring that customer and other sensitive data remain secure. This balance can be difficult, as many believe that improvements in security come at the expense of system usability

Security is the degree of protection to safeguard a nation, union of nations, persons or person against danger, damage, loss, and crime. Security as a form of protection are structures and processes that provide or improve security as a condition. The Institute for Security and Open Methodologies (ISECOM) in the OSSTMM 3 defines security as "a form of protection where a separation is created between the assets and the threat". This includes but is not limited to the elimination of either the asset or the threat. Security as a national condition was defined in a United Nations study (1986):[citation needed] so that countries can develop and progress safely.

Security has to be compared to related concepts: safety, continuity, reliability. The key difference between security and reliability is that security must take into account the actions of people attempting to cause destruction.

Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) is software designed to allow servers to work together as a computer cluster, to provide failover and increased availability of applications, or parallel calculating power in case of high-performance computing (HPC) clusters

Microsoft has three technologies for clustering: Microsoft Cluster Service (MSCS), Component Load Balancing (CLB) (part of Application Center 2000), and Network Load Balancing Services (NLB). In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 the MSCS service has been renamed to Windows Server Failover Clustering and the Component Load Balancing (CLB) feature has been deprecated.

A database server is a computer program that provides database services to other computer programs or computers, as defined by the client–server model. The term may also refer to a computer dedicated to running such a program. Database management systems frequently provide database server functionality, and some DBMSs rely exclusively on the client–server model for database access.

Such a server is accessed either through a "front end" running on the user’s computer which displays requested data or the "back end" which runs on the server and handles tasks such as data analysis and storage.

Some examples of proprietary database servers are Oracle, DB2, Informix, and Microsoft SQL Server. Examples of GNU General Public Licence database servers are Ingres and MySQL. Every server uses its own query logic and structure. The SQL query language is more or less the same in all the database servers.

The .NET Framework is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows. It includes a large library and provides language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages) across several programming languages. Programs written for the .NET Framework execute in a software environment (as contrasted to hardware environment), known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR), an application virtual machine that provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. The class library and the CLR together constitute the .NET Framework.

The .NET Framework's Base Class Library provides user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. Programmers produce software by combining their own source code with the .NET Framework and other libraries. The .NET Framework is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform. Microsoft also produces an integrated development environment largely for .NET software called Visual Studio.

A distributed transaction is an operations bundle, in which two or more network hosts are involved. Usually, hosts provide transactional resources, while the transaction manager is responsible for creating and managing a global transaction that encompasses all operations against such resources. Distributed transactions, as any other transactions, must have all four ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, durability) properties, where atomicity guarantees all-or-nothing outcomes for the unit of work. Open Group, a vendor consortium, proposed the X/Open Distributed Transaction Processing (DTP) Model (X/Open XA), which became a de facto standard for behavior of transaction model components.

Databases are common transactional resources and, often, transactions span a couple of such databases. In this case, a distributed transaction can be seen as a database transaction that must be synchronized among multiple participating databases which are distributed among different physical locations. The isolation property poses a special challenge for multi database transactions, since the (global) serializability property could be violated, even if each database provides it. In practice most commercial database systems use strong strict two phase locking (SS2PL) for concurrency control, which ensures global serializability, if all the participating databases employ it.

A common algorithm for ensuring correct completion of a distributed transaction is the two-phase commit (2PC). This algorithm is usually applied for updates able to commit in a short period of time, ranging from couple of milliseconds to couple of minutes.

Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) is a proprietary Microsoft technology for communication among software components distributed across networked computers. DCOM, which originally was called "Network OLE", extends Microsoft's COM, and provides the communication substrate under Microsoft's COM+ application server infrastructure. It has been deprecated in favor of the Microsoft .NET Remoting, a part of their .NET Framework.

The addition of the "D" to COM was due to extensive use of DCE/RPC (Distributed Computing Environment/Remote Procedure Calls) – more specifically Microsoft's enhanced version, known as MSRPC.

DCOM was a major competitor to CORBA. Proponents of both of these technologies saw them as one day becoming the model for code and service-reuse over the Internet. However, the difficulties involved in getting either of these technologies to work over Internet firewalls, and on unknown and insecure machines, meant that normal HTTP requests in combination with web browsers won out over both of them. Microsoft, at one point, attempted and failed to head this off by adding an extra http transport to DCE/RPC called ncacn_http (Network Computing Architecture, Connection-based, over HTTP). This was later resurrected to support a Microsoft Exchange 2003 connection over HTTP.

Component Object Model (COM) is a binary-interface standard for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. It is used to enable interprocess communication and dynamic object creation in a large range of programming languages. The term COM is often used in the Microsoft software development industry as an umbrella term that encompasses the OLE, OLE Automation, ActiveX, COM+ and DCOM technologies.

The essence of COM is a language-neutral way of implementing objects that can be used in environments different from the one in which they were created, even across machine boundaries. For well-authored components, COM allows reuse of objects with no knowledge of their internal implementation, as it forces component implementers to provide well-defined interfaces that are separate from the implementation. The different allocation semantics of languages are accommodated by making objects responsible for their own creation and destruction through reference-counting. Casting between different interfaces of an object is achieved through the QueryInterface() function. The preferred method of inheritance within COM is the creation of sub-objects to which method calls are delegated.

Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE is Oracle's enterprise Java computing platform. The platform provides an API and runtime environment for developing and running enterprise software, including network and web services, and other large-scale, multi-tiered, scalable, reliable, and secure network applications. Java EE extends the Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE/J2SE), providing an API for object-relational mapping, distributed and multi-tier architectures, and web services. The platform incorporates a design based largely on modular components running on an application server. Software for Java EE is primarily developed in the Java programming language and uses XML for configuration.

Java EE is defined by its specification. As with other Java Community Process specifications, providers must meet certain conformance requirements in order to declare their products as Java EE compliant.

Java EE includes several API specifications, such as JDBC, RMI, e-mail, JMS, web services, XML, etc., and defines how to coordinate them. Java EE also features some specifications unique to Java EE for components. These include Enterprise JavaBeans, Connectors, servlets, JavaServer Pages and several web service technologies. This allows developers to create enterprise applications that are portable and scalable, and that integrate with legacy technologies. A Java EE application server can handle transactions, security, scalability, concurrency and management of the components that are deployed to it, in order to enable developers to concentrate more on the business logic of the components rather than on infrastructure and integration tasks.

JDBC is a Java-based data access technology (Java Standard Edition platform) from Sun Microsystems. It is an acronym as it is unofficially referred to as Java Database Connectivity, with DB being universally recognized as the abbreviation for database. This technology is an API for the Java programming language that defines how a client may access a database. It provides methods for querying and updating data in a database. JDBC is oriented towards relational databases. A JDBC-to-ODBC bridge enables connections to any ODBC-accessible data source in the JVM host environment.

JDBC allows multiple implementations to exist and be used by the same application. The API provides a mechanism for dynamically loading the correct Java packages and registering them with the JDBC Driver Manager. The Driver Manager is used as a connection factory for creating JDBC connections.

JDBC connections support creating and executing statements. These may be update statements such as SQL's CREATE, INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE, or they may be query statements such as SELECT. Additionally, stored procedures may be invoked through a JDBC connection. JDBC represents statements.

The Java Remote Method Invocation Application Programming Interface (API), or Java RMI, is a Java API that performs the object-oriented equivalent of remote procedure calls (RPC).

The original implementation depends on Java Virtual Machine (JVM) class representation mechanisms and it thus only supports making calls from one JVM to another. The protocol underlying this Java-only implementation is known as Java Remote Method Protocol (JRMP).

In order to support code running in a non-JVM context, a CORBA version was later developed.

JavaMail is a Java API used to receive and send email via SMTP, POP3 and IMAP. JavaMail is built into the Java EE platform, but also provides an optional package for use in Java SE.

A Servlet is a Java programming language class used to extend the capabilities of a server. Although servlets can respond to any types of requests, they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers, so they can be thought of as Java Applets that run on servers instead of in web browsers. These kinds of servlets are the Java counterpart to non-Java dynamic Web content technologies such as PHP and ASP.NET.

A Servlet is a Java-based server-side web technology. Technically speaking, a Servlet is a Java class in Java EE that conforms to the Java Servlet API, a protocol by which a Java class may respond to requests. Servlets could in principle communicate over any client–server protocol, but they are most often used with the HTTP protocol. Therefore, the word "Servlet" is often used in the meaning of "HTTP Servlet".[2] Thus, a software developer may use a servlet to add dynamic content to a web server using the Java platform. The generated content is commonly HTML, but may be other data such as XML. Servlets can maintain state in session variables across many server transactions by using HTTP cookies, or URL rewriting.

Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft. As a database, it is a software product whose primary function is to store and retrieve data as requested by other software applications, be it those on the same computer or those running on another computer across a network (including the Internet). There are at least a dozen different editions of Microsoft SQL Server aimed at different audiences and for different workloads (ranging from small applications that store and retrieve data on the same computer, to millions of users and computers that access huge amounts of data from the Internet at the same time).

SQL Server 2008 was released on August 6, 2008 and aims to make data management self-tuning, self organizing, and self maintaining with the development of SQL Server Always On technologies, to provide near-zero downtime. SQL Server 2008 also includes support for structured and semi-structured data, including digital media formats for pictures, audio, video and other multimedia data. In current versions, such multimedia data can be stored as BLOBs (binary large objects), but they are generic bitstreams. Intrinsic awareness of multimedia data will allow specialized functions to be performed on them. According to Paul Flessner, senior Vice President, Server Applications, Microsoft Corp., SQL Server 2008 can be a data storage backend for different varieties of data: XML, email, time/calendar, file, document, spatial, etc as well as perform search, query, analysis, sharing, and synchronization across all data types.

'Electronic commerce', commonly known as 'e-commerce' or 'e-comm', is the buying and selling of product or service over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce draws on such technologies as electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at one point in the transaction's life-cycle, although it may encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail, mobile devices and telephones as well.

Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of business transactions.

E-commerce can be divided into:

E-tailing or "virtual storefronts" on Web sites with online catalogs, sometimes gathered into a "virtual mall"

The gathering and use of demographic data through Web contacts

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), the business-to-business exchange of data

E-mail and fax and their use as media for reaching prospects and established customers (for example, with newsletters)

Business-to-business buying and selling.

The security of business transactions.

PHP is a general-purpose server-side scripting language originally designed for Web development to produce dynamic Web pages. It is one of the first developed server-side scripting languages to be embedded into an HTML source document rather than calling an external file to process data. The code is interpreted by a Web server with a PHP processor module which generates the resulting Web page. It also has evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications.[2] PHP can be deployed on most Web servers and also as a standalone shell on almost every operating system and platform free of charge.[3] A competitor to Microsoft's Active Server Pages (ASP) server-side script engine[4] and similar languages, PHP is installed on more than 20 million Web sites and 1 million Web servers.[5] Software that uses PHP includes MediaWiki, Joomla, Wordpress, Concrete5, MyBB, and Drupal.

PHP was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995. The main implementation of PHP is now produced by The PHP Group and serves as the formal reference to the PHP language.[6] PHP is free software released under the PHP License, which is incompatible with the GNU General Public License (GPL) due to restrictions on the usage of the term PHP.

While PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, it is now said to stand for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor, a recursive acronym.

A website, also written as Web site,[1] web site, or simply site,[2] is a set of related web pages containing content such as text, images, video, audio, etc. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network through an Internet address known as a Uniform Resource Locator. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web.

A webpage is a document, typically written in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, XHTML). A webpage may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.

Webpages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user of the webpage content. The user's application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal.

The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a simple Uniform Resource Locator (URL) called the web address. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy, although hyperlinking between them conveys the reader's perceived site structure and guides the reader's navigation of the site which generally includes a home page with most of the links to the site's web content, and a supplementary about, contact and link page.

Some websites require a subscription to access some or all of their content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, parts of news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, and websites providing various other services (e.g., websites offering storing and/or sharing of images, files and so forth).

A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below), but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught, is commonly called a university college or university.

In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also attend schools before and after primary and secondary education. Kindergarten or pre-school provide some schooling to very young children (typically ages 3–5). University, vocational school, college or seminary may be available after secondary school. A school may also be dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or a school of dance. Alternative schools may provide nontraditional curriculum and methods.

here are also non-government schools, called private schools. Private schools may be required when the government does not supply adequate, or special education. Other private schools can also be religious, such as Christian schools, hawzas, yeshivas, and others; or schools that have a higher standard of education or seek to foster other personal achievements. Schools for adults include institutions of corporate training, Military education and training and business schools.

In homeschooling and online schools, teaching and learning take place outside of a traditional school building.

The word school derives from Greek σχολή (scholē), originally meaning "leisure" and also "that in which leisure is employed", but later "a group to whom lectures were given, school".

Government is broadly defined as the administrative group of people with authority to govern a political state.[1] In British English, a government more narrowly refers to the particular administrative bureaucracy in control of a state at a given time[2]—known in American English as an administration. In American English, government refers to the larger system by which any state is organized.[3] Furthermore, government is occasionally used in English as a synonym for governance.

In the case of its broad definition, government normally consists of legislators, administrators, and arbitrators. Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. A form of government, or form of state governance, refers to the set of political institutions by which a government of a state is organized.

States are served by a continuous succession of different governments.[4] Each successive government is composed of a body of individuals who control and exercise control over political decision-making. Their function is to make and enforce laws and arbitrate conflicts. In some societies, this group is often a self-perpetuating or hereditary class. In other societies, such as democracies, the political roles remain, but there is frequent turnover of the people actually filling the positions.

Government of any kind currently affects every human activity in many important ways. For this reason, political scientists generally argue that government should not be studied by itself. They argue that government should be studied along with anthropology, economics, history, philosophy, science, and sociology.

Church is an English word for a Christian religious institution or building

In Christianity, a church service is a formalized period of communal worship, often but not exclusively occurring on Sunday, or Saturday in the case of those churches practicing seventh-day Sabbatarianism. The church service is the gathering together of Christians to be taught the "Word of God" (the Christian Bible) and encouraged in their faith. Technically, the "church" in "church service" refers to the gathering of the faithful rather than to the building in which it takes place.

Styles of service vary greatly, from the Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Lutheran traditions of liturgical worship to the evangelical Protestant style, that often combines worship with teaching for the believers, which may also have an evangelistic component appealing to the non-Christians and/or skeptics in the congregation. Quakers and some other groups have no formal outline to their services, but allow the worship to develop as the participants present feel moved.

The term Christian Church as a proper noun refers to the whole Christian religious tradition through history. The term does not correctly refer to a particular "Christian church" (a "denomination" or building).

The Greek term ἐκκλησία, which in its appearances in the New Testament is usually translated as "church", basically means "assembly".[1] This term appears in two verses of the canonical Gospel of Matthew, twenty-four verses of the Acts of the Apostles, fifty-eight verses of the letters of Paul the Apostle (including the earliest instances of its use in relation to a Christian body), two verses of the Letter to the Hebrews, one verse of the Epistle of James, three verses of the Third Epistle of John, and nineteen verses of the Book of Revelation.

A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a health care facility that is primarily devoted to the care of outpatients. Clinics can be privately operated or publicly managed and funded, and typically cover the primary health care needs of populations in local communities, in contrast to larger hospitals which offer specialized treatments and admit inpatients for overnight stays. Some clinics grow to be institutions as large as major hospitals, or become associated with a hospital or medical school, while retaining the name “clinic."

Clinics are often associated with a general medical practice, run by one or several general practitioners or practice managers. Physiotherapy clinics are usually operated by physiotherapists and psychology clinics by clinical psychologists, and so on for each health profession. Some clinics are operated in-house by employers, government organizations or hospitals and some clinical services are outsourced to private corporations, specialising in provision of health services. In China, for example, owners of those clinics do not have formal medical education. There were 659,596 village clinics in China in 2011.[1] Health care in India, China, Russia and Africa is provided to vast rural areas by mobile health clinics or roadside dispensaries, some of which integrate traditional health practices. In India these traditional clinics provide ayurvedic medicine and unani herbal medical practice. In each of these countries traditional medicine tends to be a hereditary practice.

The function of clinics will differ from country to country. For instance, a local general practice run by a single general practitioner will provide primary health care, and will usually be run as a for-profit business by the owner whereas a government specialist clinic may provide subsidized specialized health care.

Some clinics function as a place for people with injuries or illnesses to come and be seen by triage nurse or other health worker. In these clinics, the injury or illness may not be serious enough to warrant a visit to an emergency room, but the person can be moved to one if required. Treatment at these clinics is often less expensive than it would be at a casualty department. Also, unlike an ER these clinics are often not open on a 24 x 7 x 365 basis. They sometimes have access to diagnostic equipment such as X-ray machines, especially if the clinic is part of a larger facility. Doctors at such clinics can often refer patients to specialists if the need arises.

A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment.

Hospitals are usually funded by the public sector, by health organizations (for profit or nonprofit), health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Historically, hospitals were often founded and funded by religious orders or charitable individuals and leaders. Today, hospitals are largely staffed by professional physicians, surgeons, and nurses, whereas in the past, this work was usually performed by the founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters, which still focus on hospital ministry today.

There are over 17,000 hospitals in the world.

In accord with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were originally "places of hospitality", and this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.

The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which is set up to deal with many kinds of disease and injury, and normally has an emergency department to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of varying sizes and facilities. Some hospitals, especially in the United States, have their own ambulance service.

A teaching hospital combines assistance to patients with teaching to medical students and nurses and often is linked to a medical school, nursing school or university.

Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs.

The scope of pharmacy practice includes more traditional roles such as compounding and dispensing medications, and it also includes more modern services related to health care, including clinical services, reviewing medications for safety and efficacy, and providing drug information. Pharmacists, therefore, are the experts on drug therapy and are the primary health professionals who optimize medication use to provide patients with positive health outcomes.

An establishment in which pharmacy (in the first sense) is practiced is called a pharmacy, chemist's or drugstore. In the United States and Canada, drug stores commonly sell not only medicines, but also miscellaneous items such as candy (sweets), cosmetics, and magazines, as well as light refreshments or groceries.

The word pharmacy is derived from its root word pharma which was a term used since the 15th–17th centuries. However, the original Greek roots from "Pharmakos" imply sorcery or even poison.[1] In addition to pharma responsibilities, the pharma offered general medical advice and a range of services that are now performed solely by other specialist practitioners, such as surgery and midwifery. The pharma (as it was referred to) often operated through a retail shop which, in addition to ingredients for medicines, sold tobacco and patent medicines. The pharmas also used many other herbs not listed. The Greek word Pharmakeia (Greek: φαρμακεια) derives from Greek: φάρμακον (pharmakon), meaning "drug" or "medicine"[2] (the earliest form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek pa-ma-ko, attested in Linear B syllabic script

In its investigation of herbal and chemical ingredients, the work of the pharma may be regarded as a precursor of the modern sciences of chemistry and pharmacology, prior to the formulation of the scientific method.

The World Health Organization estimates that there are at least 2.6 million pharmacists and other pharmaceutical personnel worldwide.

Graphics (from Greek γραφικός graphikos) are visual presentations on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to brand, inform, illustrate, or entertain. Graphics word is derived from the word graph. A graph has x and y axis. Same way something which is created in digital word is seen on a digital screen, this screen also has x and y axis. So the output on any digital device is termed as graphics. In other words an image that is generated by a computer called graphics. The pictorial representation and manipulation of data, as used in computer-aided design and manufacture, in typesetting and the graphic arts, and in educational and recreational programs.

Examples are photographs, drawings, Line Art, graphs, diagrams, typography, numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings, or other images. Graphics often combine text, illustration, and color. Graphic design may consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flier, poster, web site, or book without any other element. Clarity or effective communication may be the objective, association with other cultural elements may be sought, or merely, the creation of a distinctive style.

Graphics can be functional or artistic. The latter can be a recorded version, such as a photograph, or an interpretation by a scientist to highlight essential features, or an artist, in which case the distinction with imaginary graphics may become blurred.

A mobile application (or mobile app) is a software application designed to run on smartphones, tablet computers and other mobile devices. They are available through application distribution platforms, which are typically operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the Apple App Store, Google Play, Windows Phone Store and BlackBerry App World. Some apps are free, while others have a price. Usually, they are downloaded from the platform to a target device, such as an iPhone, BlackBerry, Android phone or Windows Phone, but sometimes they can be downloaded to less mobile computers, such as laptops or desktops. For apps with a price, generally a percentage, 20-30%, goes to the distribution provider (such as iTunes), and the rest goes to the producer of the app

The term "app" has become popular, and in 2010 was listed as "Word of the Year" by the American Dialect Society.[2] Technologist Michael Saylor has referred to the newer mobile app enabled smartphones as "app-phones" for their distinction from the earlier smartphone models. He states that these app-phones can support many applications and programming languages and should be considered computers first and phones second. Mobile apps were originally offered for general productivity and information retrieval, including email, calendar, contacts, and stock market and weather information. However, public demand and the availability of developer tools drove rapid expansion into other categories, such as mobile games, factory automation, GPS and location-based services, banking,order-tracking, and ticket purchases. The explosion in number and variety of apps made discovery a challenge, which in turn led to the creation of a wide range of review, recommendation, and curation sources, including blogs, magazines, and dedicated online app-discovery services.

Mobile computing is human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage. Mobile computing involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Communication issues include ad-hoc and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats and concrete technologies. Hardware includes mobile devices or device components. Mobile software deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications.

Mobile computing is "taking a computer and all necessary files and software out into the field.

Mobile computing: being able to use a computing device even when being mobile and therefore changing location. Portability is one aspect of mobile computing.

Web design is a broad term covering many different skills and disciplines that are used in the production and maintenance of websites.The different areas of web design include; web graphic design, interface design, authoring; including standardised code and proprietary software, user experience design and search engine optimization. Often many individuals will work in teams covering different aspects of the design process, although some designers will cover them all. The term web design is normally used to describe the design process relating to the front-end (client side) design of a website including writing mark up, but this is a grey area as this is also covered by web development. Web designers are expected to have an awareness of usability and if their role involves creating mark up then they are also expected to be up to date with web accessibility guidelines.

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.[1] HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.

Hypertext is a multi-linear set of objects, building a network by using logical links (the so-called hyperlinks) between the nodes (e.g. text or words). HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext.

The standards development of HTTP was coordinated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), culminating in the publication of a series of Requests for Comments (RFCs), most notably RFC 2616 (June 1999), which defines HTTP/1.1, the version of HTTP in common use.

1. A visual representation or image painted, drawn, photographed, or otherwise rendered on a flat surface. 2. A visible image, especially one on a flat surface or screen: the picture reflected in the lake; focused the picture on the movie screen. 3. a. A vivid or realistic verbal description: a Shakespearean picture of guilt. b. A vivid mental image. 4. A person or object bearing a marked resemblance to another: She's the picture of her mother. 5. A person, object, or scene that typifies or embodies an emotion, state of mind, or mood: Your face was the very picture of horror. 6. The chief circumstances of an event or time; a situation. 7. A movie. 8. A tableau vivant.

WordPress is an open source CMS, often used as a blog publishing application powered by PHP and MySQL. It has many features including a plugin architecture and a templating system. Used by over 12% of the 1,000,000 biggest websites, WordPress is the most popular CMS in use today.

A popular and powerful blogging application (software). At Likoma, we love WordPress so much that we specialize in it.

Joomla is a free and open source CMS or content management system for publishing content on the World Wide Web and intranets. It comprises a model–view–controller (MVC) Web application framework that can be used indepentedly also.

Joomla is an open source content management system(CMS). If you want to install Joomla in your web hosting package, see step-by-step instructions in Installing Joomla.

a variety of bridge in which tricks made in excess of the contract are scored toward game; now generally superseded by contract bridge

An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, and then selling the item to the highest bidder. In economic theory, an auction may refer to any mechanism or set of trading rules for exchange.

An invoice or bill is a commercial document issued by a seller to the buyer, indicating the products, quantities, and agreed prices for products or services the seller has provided the buyer. An invoice indicates the sale transaction only. Payment terms are independent of the invoice and are negotiated by the buyer and the seller. Payment terms are usually included on the invoice. The buyer could have already paid for the products or services listed on the invoice. Buyer can also have a maximum number of days in which to pay for these goods and is sometimes offered a discount if paid before the due date.

In the rental industry, an invoice must include a specific reference to the duration of the time being billed, so in addition to quantity, price and discount the invoicing amount is also based on duration. Generally each line of a rental invoice will refer to the actual hours, days, weeks, months, etc., being billed.

1. Credit (casino), a marketing tool that, when used appropriately, can result in significant casino revenues 2.Credit (creative arts), acknowledging the ideas or other work of writers and contributors 3.Credit (finance), the granting of a loan and the creation of debt. It is any form of deferred payment. 4.Credit rating, assessment of credit worthiness 5.Credit score, a representation of credit worthiness 6.Credit (science fiction), a form of currency in some fictional works 7.Course credit, a system of measuring academic coursework

A demerit point system is one in which a driver's licensing authority, police force, or other organization issues cumulative demerits, or points to drivers on conviction for road traffic offenses. Points may either be added or subtracted, depending on the particular system in use. A major offense may lead to more than the maximum allowed points being issued. Points are typically applied after offenses are committed, and cancelled a defined time, typically a few years, afterwards, or after other conditions are met; if the total exceeds a specified limit the offender may be disqualified from driving for a time, or the driving license may be revoked. Fines and other penalties may be applied additionally, either for an offense or after a certain number of points have been accumulated.

A completely integrated ecommerce solution allows a seamless and continuous flow of information between the ecommerce solution and your existing accounting software, POS or ERP solution, your business processes (order fufillment system, customer service, sales and marketing), your shipping companies, your electronic payment services, new online sales channels, other Internet services and much more.

the body of members of an organization or group; "they polled their membership"; "they found dissension in their own ranks"; "he joined the ranks of the unemployed"

one of the persons who compose a social group (especially individuals who have joined and participate in a group organization); "only members will be admitted"; "a member of the faculty"; "she was introduced to all the members of his family"

The subscription business model is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to the product/service. The model was pioneered by magazines and newspapers, but is now used by many businesses and websites.

Rather than selling products individually, a subscription sells periodic (monthly or yearly or seasonal) use or access to a product or service, or, in the case of such non-profit organizations as opera companies or symphony orchestras, it sells tickets to the entire run of five to fifteen scheduled performances for an entire season. Thus, a one-time sale of a product can become a recurring sale and can build brand loyalty. It is used for anything where a user is tracked in both a subscribed and unsubscribed status

A donation is a gift given by physical or legal persons, typically for charitable purposes and/or to benefit a cause. A donation may take various forms, including cash offering, services, new or used goods including clothing, toys, food, and vehicles. It also may consist of emergency, relief or humanitarian aid items, development aid support, and can also relate to medical care needs as i.e. blood or organs for transplant. Charitable gifts of goods or services are also called gifts in kind. The largest form of gifts in kind is created in many nations by the donation of aging automobiles with the item donated being picked up, sold and the proceeds given to the charity or non-profit (type or named) which was the target of the donor's generosity. One standard way of obtaining donations is the use of raffles for the accumulation of funds.

A gift or a present is the transfer of something without the expectation of payment. Although gift-giving might involve an expectation of reciprocity, a gift is meant to be free. In many human societies, the act of mutually exchanging money, goods, etc. may contribute to social cohesion. Economists have elaborated the economics of gift-giving into the notion of a gift economy. By extension the term gift can refer to anything that makes the other happier or less sad, especially as a favor, including forgiveness and kindness.

A payment gateway is an e-commerce application service provider service that authorizes payments for e-businesses, online retailers, bricks and clicks, or traditional brick and mortar. It is the equivalent of a physical point of sale terminal located in most retail outlets. ...

Includes built in support for some of the following gateways: Paypal, Authorize.net, Verisign, Worldpay, SecureTrading and Others. This allows you to accept credit cards via these gateways with little to no additional work. ...

webERP is an open source ERP system for Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME).

A payment system is a system used for transferring money. What makes it a "system" is that it employs cash-substitutes; traditional payment systems are negotiable instruments such as drafts (e.g., checks) and documentary credits such as letter of credits. With the advent of computers and electronic communications a large number of alternative electronic payment systems have emerged. These include debit cards, credit cards, electronic funds transfers, direct credits, direct debits, internet banking and e-commerce payment systems. Some payment systems include credit mechanisms, but that is essentially a different aspect of payment. Payment systems are used in lieu of tendering cash in domestic and international transactions and consist of a major service provided by banks and other financial institutions.

Payment systems may be physical or electronic and each has their own procedures and protocols. Standardisation have allowed some of these systems and networks to grow to a global scale, but there are still many country and product specific systems. Examples of payment systems that have become globally available are credit card and automated teller machine networks. Specific forms of payment systems are also used to settle financial transactions for products in the equity markets, bond markets, currency markets, futures markets, derivatives markets, options markets and for transfer funds between financial institutions both domestically using clearing and Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) systems and internationally using the SWIFT network.

A shopping cart (trolley, carriage, trundler, wagon, basket, buggy) is a cart supplied by a shop, especially supermarkets, for use by customers inside the shop for transport of merchandise to the check-out counter during shopping. Customers can then also use the cart to transport their purchased goods to their cars.

In many places in the United States, customers are allowed to leave the carts in the parking lot, and store personnel will return the carts to the storage area. In many European premises however, coin (or token) operated locking mechanisms are provided to encourage shoppers to return the carts to the correct location after use.

Office automation refers to the varied computer machinery and software used to digitally create, collect, store, manipulate, and relay office information needed for accomplishing basic tasks. Raw data storage, electronic transfer, and the management of electronic business information comprise the basic activities of an office automation system. Office automation helps in optimizing or automating existing office procedures.

he backbone of office automation is a LAN, which allows users to transmit data, mail and even voice across the network. All office functions, including dictation, typing, filing, copying, fax, Telex, microfilm and records management, telephone and telephone switchboard operations, fall into this category. Office automation was a popular term in the 1970s and 1980s as the desktop computer exploded onto the scene. ADVANTAGES are:- 1.office automation can get many task accomplished faster. 2.it eliminates the need for a large staff. 3.less storage required for data to store. 4.multiple people can updated data Simultaneously in the event of schedule change

Automated fingerprint identification is the process of automatically matching one or many unknown fingerprints against a database of known and unknown prints. Automated fingerprint identification systems are primarily used by law enforcement agencies for criminal identification initiatives, the most important of which include identifying a person suspected of committing a crime or linking a suspect to other unsolved crimes.

Automated fingerprint verification is a closely related technique used in applications such as attendance and access control systems. On a technical level, verification systems verify a claimed identity (a user might claim to be John by presenting his PIN or ID card and verify his identity using his fingerprint), whereas identification systems determine identity based solely on fingerprints.

With greater frequency in recent years, automated fingerprint identification systems have been used in large scale civil identification projects. The chief purpose of a civil fingerprint identifications system is to prevent multiple enrollments in an electoral, welfare, driver licensing, or similar system. Another benefit of a civil fingerprint identifications system is its use in background checks for job applicants for highly sensitive posts and educational personnel who have close contact with children.

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The system also allows users to remotely monitor and control their home from anywhere via a smartphone, tablet or computer with a free basic level of service. Text alerts can be sent when alarms are triggered and there’s and users can access remote video streaming from cameras in the home.

The Iris Hub connects to your home’s broadband router and communicates with your smart home devices. Customers can sign in to manage the system via on an Internet-connected computer or via mobile apps. The Iris app is available for free download for both iOS (iPhone, iPod touch and iPad) and Android users.

Keystroke dynamics, or typing dynamics, is the detailed timing information that describes exactly when each key was pressed and when it was released as a person is typing at a computer keyboard

The behavioral biometric of Keystroke Dynamics uses the manner and rhythm in which an individual types characters on a keyboard or keypad. The keystroke rhythms of a user are measured to develop a unique biometric template of the users typing pattern for future authentication. Raw measurements available from most every keyboard can be recorded to determine Dwell time (the time a key pressed) and Flight time (the time between “key up” and the next “key down”). The recorded keystroke timing data is then processed through a unique neural algorithm, which determines a primary pattern for future comparison. Similarly, vibration information may be used to create a pattern for future use in both identification and authentication tasks.

E-Channels, also known as The Automated Passenger Clearance System, is a border control system introduced by the Hong Kong Immigration Department back in 2004, designed to speed up border immigration processes for residents of Hong Kong, Macau and frequent visitors to Hong Kong entering and exiting the territory whether it be by land, air or sea via the use of self-service kiosks employed at various border control points

The user upon entrance to the E-Channel inserts his Hong Kong Identity Card into the card reader (which reads the embedded chip) or place his registered travel document / Macau Identity Card onto the document reader, the channel gate will open, the user takes his resident card and steps in and the gate will close behind him, next he would be requested to place his thumb or finger onto the fingerprint reader, once identity has been confirmed, another set of gates in front of him will open allowing him to pass. If an issue arises whether identity cannot be confirmed or a malfunction occurs, an immigration supervisor will be on hand to assist.

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DNA is the main carrier of genetic information in living organisms. DNA molecules are extremely long, large, and consist of repeating nucleotides. Nucleotides are the bases of DNA and consist of adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). The structure of a DNA molecule is double stranded, consisting of two DNA strands wound around each other to form a double helix. The nucleotides of the two strands are complementary to each other such that adenine cross-links with thymine (A-T), and guanine cross-links with cytosine (G-C). The goal of DNA sequencing is to determine the order of bases for a specific piece of DNA.

Telebiometrics applies biometrics to telecommunications and telecommunications to remote biometric sensing. With the emergence of multimodal biometrics systems gathering data from different sensors and contexts, International Standards that support systems performing biometric enrollment and verification or identification have begun to focus on human physiological thresholds as constraints and frameworks for "plug and play" telebiometric networks. Attending to these wetware protocols has become particularly urgent in the context of a recent study suggesting possible pathological effects from RFID transponders implanted in dogs. Dogs are frequently used as model organisms in the study of human disease.

Working with BioAPI (Biometric Application Programming Interface) and BIP (Biometric Interworking Protocol), IEC TC25/WG 5, in conjunction with ITU and ISO, has drafted a standard for Quantities and Units defining such physiological interactions for biometrics. "Telebiometrics related to human physiology, IEC 80000-14" specification is one of a set of International Standards produced jointly by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) under their Joint Technical Committee.

The FERET database is a standard[citation needed] dataset used for facial recognition system evaluation. The Face Recognition Technology (FERET) program is managed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A database of facial imagery was collected between December 1993 and August 1996. In 2003 DARPA released a high-resolution, 24-bit color version of these images. The dataset tested includes 2,413 still facial images, representing 856 individuals.

The FERET program was set out to establish a large database of facial images that was gathered independently from the algorithm developers. Dr. Harry Wechsler at George Mason University was selected to direct the collection of this database. The database collection was a collaborative effort between Dr. Wechsler and Dr. Phillips.

SmartGate is an automated border processing system being introduced by the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service and New Zealand Customs Service. It is a secure and simple system that performs the customs and immigration checks normally made by a Customs Officer when a traveller arrives in either Australia or New Zealand. At present, passengers aged 16 or above using an Australian or New Zealand ePassport are able to use the technology in both countries, with the exception of New Zealand ePassport holders travelling on military orders when arriving in and departing from Australia

The Fichier National Automatisé des Empreintes Génétiques (English: Automated National File of Genetic Prints) is the French national DNA database, used by both the national police force and local gendarmerie.

The biometric USB hardware is encryption coupled with dual fingerprint authentication methodology to prevent crackers bypassing the encryption. Dual fingerprint authentication function increases the difficulty for crackers and prevents access from the outside into the secured non-volatile internal memory storage. Signature is designed so that the encryption key is stored randomly in the flash memory. If it were cracked, a self destruct feature will trigger it to reformat and destroy all data stored in the device

BioAPI (Biometric Application Programming Interface) is a key part of the International Standards that support systems that perform biometric enrollment and verification (or identification). It defines interfaces between modules that enable software from multiple vendors to be integrated together to provide a biometrics application within a system, or between one or more systems using a defined Biometric Interworking Protocol.

Biometrics (measurements of physical characteristics of a person) are increasingly being used to provide verification of the identity of an individual, once they have been enrolled (one or more of their physical characteristics has been measured).

VeriFace is a face-recognition software package that is a registered trademark of Lenovo and was the first Face Verification Technology on public computer.

In lieu of passwords, VeriFace identifies users by matching unique features of individual faces to photographs taken by the 1.3-megapixel webcam. It was reported that the version available in 2009 could be fooled by holding up a photograph of the individual in front of the webcam, and therefore offers only limited security in the default configuration.

VeriFace is included on all new IdeaPad notebooks and netbook, and currently only works on Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7. It does not work on previous versions of Microsoft

Idex ASA (Oslo Stock Exchange : IDEX) is a Norwegian biometrics software and fingerprint authentication company founded in 1996 and headquartered in Oslo. IDEX offers fingerprint sensor and biometric software for identity cards, banking cards, smart cards and other security solutions.

M2SYS Technology is a global research and development company that provides biometric identity management software and hardware along with enterprise software applications to several vertical markets including; public safety, workforce management, point of sale, healthcare, education, child care, transportation security, banking and membership management. They offer Software Development Kits to software vendors that wish to add biometric identification to their applications and solutions directly to end users.

The name M2SYS is short for “Mind to System” and was coined by CEO Mizan Rahman to describe the flow of development ideas into a tangible, market-ready biometric recognition software engine and ancillary products.

Core banking is services provided by a group of networked bank branches. Bank customers may access their funds and other simple transactions from any of the member branch offices.

Core Banking is normally defined as the business conducted by a banking institution with its retail and small business customers. Many banks treat the retail customers as their core banking customers, and have a separate line of business to manage small businesses. Larger businesses are managed via the corporate banking division of the institution. Core banking basically is depositing and lending of money.

Nowadays, most banks use core banking applications to support their operations where CORE stands for "centralized online real-time environment". This basically means that all the bank's branches access applications from centralized datacenters. This means that the deposits made are reflected immediately on the bank's servers and the customer can withdraw the deposited money from any of the bank's branches throughout the world. These applications now also have the capability to address the needs of corporate customers, providing a comprehensive banking solution.

A few decades ago it used to take at least a day for a transaction to reflect in the account because each branch had their local servers, and the data from the server in each branch was sent in a batch to the servers in the datacenter only at the end of the day (EoD).

Normal core banking functions will include deposit accounts, loans, mortgages and payments. Banks make these services available across multiple channels like ATMs, Internet banking, and branches.

A direct bank is a bank without any branch network.

Direct banks were originally based on providing banking services via telephone. One the world's first first fully functional direct banks was First Direct, which launched in the United Kingdom on October 1, 1989. A subsidiary of the then Midland Bank, it pioneered the concepts of no branches and 24-hour service from a call center based in Leeds.

However, it was the commercialization of the Internet in the early 1990s that was the biggest driver in the creation of direct banking models. As the Internet became more generally accessible, traditional banks began to realize its potential to deliver services to their customers while reducing long-term operational costs. Upon realizing this, traditional banks began to offer limited online banking services.

The initial success of internet banking services provided by traditional banks led to the development of internet-only banks or "virtual banks". These banks were designed without a traditional banking infrastructure, a cost-saving feature that allowed many of them to offer savings accounts with higher interest rates and loans with lower interest rates than most traditional banks.

One of the first fully functional direct banks in the United States was the Security First Network Bank (SFNB), which began operations on October 18, 1995[citation needed]. Based in Atlanta, it was the first direct bank to be insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). After three years of operation, it was acquired by the Royal Bank of Canada (RBC). Though SFNB did not make much profit in its initial years, it demonstrated that the concept of direct banking could work.

Financial inclusion or inclusive financing is the delivery of financial services, at affordable costs, to sections of disadvantaged and low income segments of society. Unrestrained access to public goods and services is the sine qua non of an open and efficient society. It is argued that as banking services are in the nature of public good; the availability of banking and payment services to the entire population without discrimination is the prime objective of this public policy. The term "financial inclusion" has gained importance since the early 2000s, and is a result of findings about financial exclusion and its direct correlation to poverty. Financial inclusion is now a common objective for many central banks among the developing nations.

On 29 December 2003, former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan said: ”The stark reality is that most poor people in the world still lack access to sustainable financial services, whether it is savings, credit or insurance. The great challenge before us is to address the constraints that exclude people from full participation in the financial sector. Together, we can and must build inclusive financial sectors that help people improve their lives.”

The United Kingdom was one of the first countries to realize the importance of financial inclusion. It published its strategy of financial inclusion in its report Promoting Financial Inclusion which was published alongside the Pre-Budget Report of 2004. The UK government also set up the Financial Inclusion Fund of £120 m to help bring about financial inclusion. The Financial Inclusion Taskforce was formally launched on 21 February 2005 to monitor progress on financial inclusion and to make suitable

Formed in 2009 with funding from the Gates Foundation, the Alliance for Financial Inclusion is made up of regulatory institutions from the developing world. In 2011 at AFI's annual Global Policy Forum meeting the network adopted the Maya Declaration, a set of common principles and goals for financial inclusion policy development. AFI uses a "polylateral development" model to contrast and compare successful financial inclusion policies, focusing on a peer-to-peer system rather than a top-down or North-to-South learning model. The network has over 80 member institutions from over 70 institutions across the globe.

Global Risk Management was created to be your one source security solution for multiple industries. The companies chosen to be in the GRM Group were hand picked for the outstanding expertise they bring to the whole picture.

Global Risk Management provides their clients, a single source for all your risk management and security solutions, whether you are corporate, small business, or an individual.

Islamic banking is banking or banking activity that is consistent with the principles of sharia law and its practical application through the development of Islamic economics. Sharia prohibits the fixed or floating payment or acceptance of specific interest or fees (known as riba, or usury) for loans of money. Investing in businesses that provide goods or services considered contrary to Islamic principles is also haraam ("sinful and prohibited"). Although these principles have been applied in varying degrees by historical Islamic economies due to lack of Islamic practice, only in the late 20th century were a number of Islamic banks formed to apply these principles to private or semi-private commercial institutions within the Muslim community.

An early market economy and an early form of mercantilism, sometimes called "Islamic capitalism", were developed between the eighth and twelfth centuries. The monetary economy of the period was based on the widely circulated currency the gold dinar, and it tied together regions that were previously economically independent.

A number of economic concepts and techniques were applied in early Islamic banking, including bills of exchange, partnership (mufawada, including limited partnerships, or mudaraba), and forms of capital (al-mal), capital accumulation (nama al-mal), cheques, promissory notes, trusts (see Waqf), transactional accounts, loaning, ledgers and assignments. Organizational enterprises independent from the state also existed in the medieval Islamic world, while the agency institution was also introduced during that time. Many of these early capitalist concepts were adopted and further advanced in medieval Europe from the 13th century onwards.

Mobile banking (also known as M-Banking, mbanking) is a term used for performing balance checks, account transactions, payments, credit applications and other banking transactions through a mobile device such as a mobile phone or Personal Digital Assistant (PDA).

Mobile banking and Mobile payments are often, incorrectly, used interchangeably. The two terms are differentiated by their service provider-to-consumer relationship; financial institution-to-consumer versus commercial institution-to-consumer for mobile banking and payments, respectively. Mobile Banking involves using mobile devices gain to access financial services. Mobile payments on the other hand may be defined as the use of mobile devices to pay for goods or services either at the point of purchase or remotely. Bill payment is not considered a form of mobile payment because it does not occur in real time.

The earliest mobile banking services were offered over SMS, a service known as SMS banking. With the introduction of the first primitive smart phones with WAP support enabling the use of the mobile web in 1999, the first European banks started to offer mobile banking on this platform to their customers.

Mobile banking has until recently (2010) most often been performed via SMS or the mobile web. Apple's initial success with iPhone and the rapid growth of phones based on Google's Android (operating system) have led to increasing use of special client programs, called apps, downloaded to the mobile device. With that said, advancements in web technologies such as HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript have seen more banks launching mobile web based services to compliment native applications. A recent study (May 2012) by Mapa Research suggests that over a third of banks have mobile device detection upon visiting the banks' main website. A number of things can happen on mobile detection such as redirecting to an app store, redirection to a mobile banking specific website or providing a menu of mobile banking options for the user to choose from of which visiting the main homepage is one.

A payment is the transfer of money from one party (such as a person or company) to another. A payment is usually made in exchange for the provision of goods, services or both, or to fulfill a legal obligation.

The simplest and oldest form of payment is barter, the exchange of one good or service for another. In the modern world, common means of payment by an individual include money, cheque, debit, credit, or bank transfer, and in trade such payments are frequently preceded by an invoice or result in a receipt. However, there are no arbitrary limits on the form a payment can take and thus in complex transactions between businesses, payments may take the form of stock or other more complicated arrangements.

In law, the payer is the party making a payment while the payee is the party receiving the payment.

There are two types of payment methods; exchanging and provisioning. Exchanging is to change coin, money and banknote in terms of the price. Provisioning is to transfer money from one account to another. In this method, a third party must be involved. Credit card, debit card, money transfers, and recurring cash or ACH (Automated Clearing House) disbursements are all electronic payments methods. Electronic payments technologies are magnetic stripe card, smartcard, contactless card and mobile handset. Mobile handset based payments are called mobile payments.

Payments may be classified by the number of parties involved to consummate a transaction. For example, a credit card transaction in the United States requires a minimum of four parties (the purchaser, the seller, the issuing bank, and the acquiring bank). A cash payment requires a minimum of three parties (the seller, the purchaser, and the issuer of the currency). A barter payment requires a minimum of two parties (the purchaser and the seller).

Private banking is banking, investment and other financial services provided by banks to private individuals who invest sizable assets. The term "private" refers to customer service rendered on a more personal basis than in mass-market retail banking, usually via dedicated bank advisers. It does not refer to a private bank, which is a non-incorporated banking institution.

Private banking forms an important, more exclusive, subset of wealth management. At least until recently, it largely consisted of banking services (deposit taking and payments), discretionary asset management, brokerage, limited tax advisory services and some basic concierge-type services, offered by a single designated relationship manager. On the whole, many clients trusted their private banking relationship manager to ‘get on with it’, and took a largely passive approach to financial decision making.

Historically, private banking has been viewed as a very exclusive niche that only caters to high net worth individuals with liquidity over $2 million, though it is now possible to open private banking accounts with as little as $250,000 for private investors. An institution's private banking division provides services such as wealth management, savings, inheritance, and tax planning for their clients. A high-level form of private banking is often referred to as wealth management. For private banking services clients pay either based on the number of transactions, the annual portfolio performance or a "flat-fee", usually calculated as a yearly percentage of the total investment amount.

"Private" also alludes to bank secrecy and minimizing taxes through careful allocation of assets, or by hiding assets from the taxing authorities. Swiss and certain offshore banks have been criticized for such cooperation with individuals practicing tax evasion. Although tax fraud is a criminal offense in Switzerland, tax evasion is only a civil offence, not requiring banks to notify taxing authorities.

Historically, private banking has developed in Europe . Some banks in Europe are known for managing assets of some royal families. The assets of Princely Family of Liechtenstein is managed by LGT Bank (founded in 1920). The assets of Dutch royal family is managed by MeesPierson. The assets of British Royal Family is managed by Coutts.

Retail banking is banking in which banking institutions execute transactions directly with consumers, rather than corporations or other banks. Services offered include savings and transactional accounts, mortgages, personal loans, debit cards, and credit cards.

Commercial bank is the term used for a normal bank to distinguish it from an investment bank. After the great depression, the U.S. Congress required that banks only engage in banking activities, whereas investment banks were limited to capital markets activities. This separation is no longer mandatory.

Commercial bank can also refer to a bank or a division of a bank that mostly deals with deposits and loans from corporations or large businesses, as opposed to normal individual members of the public. It is the most successful department of banking.

Community development bank are regulated banks that provide financial services and credit to underserved markets or populations.

Private Banks manage the assets of high net worth individuals.

A universal bank participates in many kinds of banking activities and is both a commercial bank and an investment bank.

The concept is most relevant in the United Kingdom and the United States, where historically there was a distinction drawn between pure investment banks and commercial banks. In the US, this was a result of the Glass–Steagall Act of 1933. In both countries, however, the regulatory barrier to the combination of investment banks and commercial banks has largely been removed, and a number of universal banks have emerged in both jurisdictions. However, at least up until the global financial crisis of 2008, there remained a number of large, pure investment banks.

In other countries, the concept is less relevant as there is not regulatory distinction between investment banks and commercial banks. Thus, banks of a very large size tend to operate as universal banks, while smaller firms specialised as commercial banks or as investment banks. This is especially true of countries with a European Continental banking tradition. Notable examples of such universal banks include BNP Paribas and Société Générale of France, HSBC and RBS of the United Kingdom, Deutsche Bank of Germany, and UBS and Credit Suisse of Switzerland.

Following the 1907 financial crisis, the U.S. Monetary Commission wanted to understand the major financial systems of the world. A treatise by Jakob Riesser, the director of a Berlin bank, argued that the German universal banking system possessed beneficial characteristics that allowed it to efficiently provide inexpensive capital to industry and promote growth. Alexander Gerschenkron also advanced the hypothesis that universal banking was critical to Germany's industrialization. More recently, Caroline Fohlin has questioned the validity of the Gerschenkron hypothesis.

Universal banking and relationship banking often coexist, but can exist independently. The provision of many services by universal banks can lead to long-term relationships between universal banks and firms.

Think of it as an exclusive circle, several levels above the rest. A service which understands that for you, the safest, the best, is just good enough. An alliance where cream-of-the-crop experts put you at financial ease, so you can kick back your feet and enjoy the market view.

A new service line developed for our most distinguished clients, Raiffeisen Premium Banking offers a holistic approach to professionals whose priority it is to enrich and protect their assets. Let's begin with the difference between what you have and what you could have. With standard banking, you ask for products, such as a credit card or a mortgage, and the bank provides them. But when you become Premium Banking client, we will first try to understand your personal needs and circumstance and then offer you a comprehensive financial plan that is stable and secure. With this style of banking you no longer have to wade through a sea of products. Rather, we do all that wading and then construct an integrated product pool that is just right for you.

When you qualify for Premium Banking, a range of benefits will be at your fingertips—a Personal Financial Advisor, priority treatment at bank branches, exclusive banking products and services.

This is your financial partner through thick and thin, who knows the ins and outs of your asset portfolio. Your advisor will meticulously select from a wide range of products and financial services to craft together the program that works lockstep with your goals. It is the advisor's priority to protect and grow your hard-earned income, so you and your family can look forward to a secure financial future.

Now you simply skip the queue and head straight to the sleek design of the Premium Banking lounge, our dedicated areas for Premium Banking clients, where your needs will be attended to right away. This no-wait policy also applies to the telephone: you will have access to special operators, who can provide solutions for your problems and answers to your questions. Priority treatment extends to our banking products as well. Your credit-card applications, for instance, may be processed faster than usual. Because in this club called Premium Banking, the wait is a relic of the past.

A government department related to finance and taxation.

A place where currency or precious items (gold, diamonds, etc.) is/are kept.The head of a treasury is typically known as a treasurer. This position may not necessarily have the final control over the actions of the treasury, particularly if they are not an elected representative.

The adjective for a treasury is normally "treasurial". The adjective "tresorial" can also be used, but this normally means pertaining to a treasurer.

The term treasury was first used in Classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or many similar buildings erected in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states to impress others during the ancient Olympic Games. In Ancient Greece treasuries were almost always physically incorporated within religious buildings such as temples, thus making state funds sacrosanct and adding moral constraints to the penal ones to those who would have access to these funds.

The sovereigns' treasury within the palace in ancient Jerusalem, is considered to be similar in nature to the temple treasury.[13] The temple treasury of the settlement had appointed officials and functioned akin to a bank.

Wealth management is an investment advisory discipline that incorporates financial planning, investment portfolio management and a number of aggregated financial services. High Net worth Individuals (HNWIs), small business owners and families who desire the assistance of a credentialed financial advisory specialist call upon wealth managers to coordinate retail banking, estate planning, legal resources, tax professionals and investment management. Wealth managers can be an independent Certified Financial Planner, MBAs, Chartered Strategic Wealth Professional, CFA Charterholders or any credentialed professional money manager who works to enhance the income, growth and tax favored treatment of long-term investors. Wealth management is often referred to as a high-level form of private banking for the especially affluent. One must already have accumulated a significant amount of wealth for wealth management strategies to be effective.

In general, compliance means conforming to a rule, such as a specification, policy, standard or law. Regulatory compliance describes the goal that corporations or public agencies aspire to achieve in their efforts to ensure that personnel are aware of and take steps to comply with relevant laws and regulations.

Due to the increasing number of regulations and need for operational transparency, organizations are increasingly adopting the use of consolidated and harmonized sets of compliance controls. This approach is used to ensure that all necessary governance requirements can be met without the unnecessary duplication of effort and activity from resources.

In finance, securities lending or stock lending refers to the lending of securities by one party to another. The terms of the loan will be governed by a "Securities Lending Agreement", which requires that the borrower provides the lender with collateral, in the form of cash, government securities, or a Letter of Credit of value equal to or greater than the loaned securities. The agreement is a contract enforceable under relevant law, which is often specified in the agreement.

As payment for the loan, the parties negotiate a fee, quoted as an annualized percentage of the value of the loaned securities. If the agreed form of collateral is cash, then the fee may be quoted as a "short rebate", meaning that the lender will earn all of the interest which accrues on the cash collateral, and will "rebate" an agreed rate of interest to the borrower.

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PHP is a general-purpose server-side scripting language originally designed for Web development to produce dynamic Web pages.

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'Electronic commerce', commonly known as 'e-commerce' or 'e-comm', is the buying and selling of product or service

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Joomla is a free and open source CMS or content management system for publishing content on the World Wide Web and intranets.